• FC FC Financial Crime

    • FC-A FC-A Introduction

      • FC-A.1 FC-A.1 Purpose

        • Executive Summary

          • FC-A.1.1

            This Module applies, to all specialised licensees, a comprehensive framework of Rules and Guidance aimed at combating money laundering and terrorist financing. In so doing, it helps implement the 40 Recommendations on money laundering and 9 Special Recommendations on terrorist financing, issued by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), that are relevant to specialised licensees. (Further information on these can be found in Chapter FC-10.) The Module also contains measures relating to the combating of fraud.

            October 2010

          • FC-A.1.2

            The Module requires specialised licensees to have effective anti-money laundering ('AML') policies and procedures, in addition to measures for combating the financing of terrorism ('CFT'). The Module contains detailed requirements relating to customer due diligence, reporting and the role and duties of the Money Laundering Reporting Officer (MLRO). Furthermore, examples of suspicious activity are provided, to assist licensees monitor transactions and fulfill their reporting obligations under Bahrain law.

            October 2010

          • FC-A.1.3

            This Module also covers measures in place to combat fraud. Chapter FC-11 sets out basic requirements regarding measures to deter, detect and report instances of fraud and attempted fraud.

            October 2010

        • Legal Basis

          • FC-A.1.4

            This Module contains the Central Bank of Bahrain's ('CBB') Directive (as amended from time to time) regarding the combating of financial crime, and is issued under the powers available to the CBB under Article 38 of the Central Bank of Bahrain and Financial Institutions Law 2006 ('CBB Law'). The Directive in this Module is applicable to all specialised licensees.

            Amended: January 2011
            October 2010

          • FC-A.1.5

            For an explanation of the CBB's rule-making powers and different regulatory instruments, see Section UG-1.1.

            October 2010

      • FC-A.2 FC-A.2 Module History

        • Evolution of Module

          • FC-A.2.1

            This Module was first issued in October 2010. Any material changes that have subsequently been made to this Module are annotated with the calendar quarter date in which the change was made: Chapter UG-3 provides further details on Rulebook maintenance and version control.

            October 2010

          • FC-A.2.2

            A list of recent changes made to this Module is detailed in the table below:

            Module Ref. Change Date Description of Changes
            FC-A.1.4 01/2011 Clarified legal basis.
            FC-B.1.1 07/2011 Exempted administrators from specific sections of this Module.
            FC-4.1.7 04/2012 Clarified requirements for MLRO.
            FC-4.3 04/2012 Amended Section to allow for CBB-approved consultancy firm to do required sample testing and report under Paragraph FC-4.3.1.
            FC-B.1.1 10/2012 Amended the scope of application to have a limited scope for ancillary services providers and to expand the role of the general managers for those licensees allowed to follow only certain Chapters of Module FC.
            FC-1.2.3(b) 01/2013 Clarified location of guidance under Part B Supplementary Information Appendix FC-(v).
            FC-1.2.11(f) and FC-1.2.11A 04/2013 Provided additional details when dealing with employee benefit trusts and occupational savings schemes.
            FC-1.10.1 04/2013 Updated language to refer to licensed exchange.
            FC-2.2.3A 04/2013 Guidance Paragraph added for trust service providers on automatic transaction monitoring.
            FC-7.1.4 04/2013 Reference made to the use of electronic records.
            FC-5.2.3 10/2014 Updated method of submitting STRs.
            FC-5.3 10/2014 Updated relevant authorities information.
            FC-1.2.8 07/2016 Change made for consistency across CBB Rulebook.
            FC-1.5.4 07/2016 Definition of PEPs is already included in Glossary so this guidance paragraph was deleted.
            FC-5.2.3 07/2016 Updated instructions for STR.
            FC-1.2.9A 01/2017 Added guidance paragraph on CR printing
            FC-8.2.1AA 04/2017 Added new Paragraph on Implementing and complying with the United Nations Security Council resolutions requirement.
            FC-1.1.2A and FC-1.1.2B 10/2017 Added new paragraphs on CDD requirements.
            FC-1.2.7 10/2017 Amended paragraph.
            FC-1.2.8A 10/2017 Added new paragraph on legal entities or legal arrangements CDD.
            FC-2.2.10 – FC- 2.2.11 10/2017 Amended paragraphs on On-going CDD and Transaction Monitoring.
            FC-4.1.4A 10/2017 Added paragraph on combining the MLRO or DMLRO position with any other position within the licensee.
            FC-B.2.4 01/2018 Added new paragraph on implementation of groupwide programmes against money laundering and terrorist financing.
            FC-1.7.1 01/2018 Amended paragraph.
            FC-1.10.1 01/2018 Deleted paragraph.
            FC-5.2.6 01/2018 Amended paragraph.
            FC-8.1.3 01/2018 Added new paragraph on due diligence measures (FATF).
            FC-8.1.4 01/2018 Added new guidance paragraph.
            FC-8.2.2 01/2018 Deleted paragraph.
            FC-1.1.2 07/2018 Deleted sub-paragraph (a).
            FC-1.9 07/2018 Amended Section title deleting the threshold.
            FC-1.9.2 07/2018 Amended Paragraph deleting the threshold.
            FC-1.10.1 07/2018 Deleted sub-paragraph (a).
            FC-1.10.3 07/2018 Deleted Paragraph.
            FC-1.10.8 07/2018 Deleted Paragraph.
            FC-1.10.1 01/2019 Amended reference.
            FC-B.1.1 10/2019 Amended Paragraph on scope of application.
            FC-1.6.4 10/2019 Amended Paragraph on societies and clubs fund transfers.
            FC-1.8.2 10/2019 Amended authority name.
            FC-4.1.8 10/2019 Amended authority name.
            FC-4.2.1 10/2019 Amended authority name.
            FC-5.2.3 10/2019 Amended authority name.
            FC-5.3.2 10/2019 Amended authority address.
            FC-8.2.1AA 10/2019 Amended Paragraph on terrorist financing.
            FC-1.1.1 01/2020 Amended Paragraph on procedures approval.
            FC-1.2.1 01/2020 Added a new Sub-paragraph.
            FC-4.3.5 01/2020 Amended Paragraph on report submission date.
            FC-4.3.7 01/2020 Amended Paragraph references.
            FC-2.1.3 & FC-2.1.4 04/2020 Added new Paragraphs on KPIs compliance with AML/CFT requirements.
            FC-1.1.5A 01/2021 Added a new Paragraph on onboarding of customers by financing companies.
            FC-1.1.5B 01/2021 Added a new Paragraph on enhanced due diligence for high risk profiles.
            FC-3.1.5 01/2021 Added a new Paragraph on rejecting payment transactions.
            FC-6.1.6A 01/2021 Added a new Paragraph on requirements to hire new employees.

        • Superseded Requirements

          • FC-A.2.3

            Prior to the introduction of this Module, the CBB (BMA then) had issued various regulatory instruments containing requirements covering different aspects of financial crime. These requirements were consolidated and updated into a comprehensive financial crime regulation, issued in January 2006 to all non-bank and non-insurance licensees. In turn, this new consolidated regulation was transposed, with no major changes, into the initial version of this Module. This Regulation and other instruments listed below replaced by this Module are listed below:

            Document Ref. Date of Issue Module Ref. Document Subject
            BC/17/97 10 Nov 1997 FC B-1 Money Laundering
            OG/308/89 14 Oct 1989 FC B-1 Money Laundering
            EDBC/6/01 14 Oct 2001 FC 1, FC 4 – FC
            7
            Re: Money Laundering Regulation
            BC/1/02 27 Jan 2002 FC 3 FATF Special Recommendations on Terrorism Financing
            BC/3/00 5 Mar 2000 FC 1.5 Re: Accounts for Charity Organisations
            EDFIS/136/2005 19 June 2005   New draft Financial Crime Regulation and Guidance
            FIS/C/001/2006 2 Jan 2006 FC-A to FC-10 New Financial Crime Regulation.
                   
            October 2010

    • FC-B FC-B Scope of Application

      • FC-B.1 FC-B.1 Scope of Application

        • FC-B.1.1

          This Module applies to all specialised licensees including branches of licensees incorporated outside of Bahrain, and Bahrain-incorporated subsidiaries of overseas groups. Certain parts of this Module may not be relevant to some licensees' business. Some transactions may not involve the opening of account relationships, however whenever a transaction takes place with another party or the licensee acts as an introducer or intermediary in a transaction or business relationship, then this Module becomes effective. Representative office licensees, administrators and ancillary services providers, except ancillary service providers carrying out the activities of payment service provider, crowdfunding platform operator and payment initiation service provider, are exempted from: FC-2, FC-3, FC-4 and FC-6 because of the limited nature of their business; however, for these licensees, Chief Executive Officer/General Manager of the licensee is responsible to comply with the remaining Chapters of Module FC. The scope provided for simplified customer due diligence requirements – as set out in Section FC-1.10 – will reduce the burden of customer due diligence for a number of specialised licensees.

          Amended: October 2019
          Amended: October 2012
          Amended: July 2011
          October 2010

        • FC-B.1.2

          The requirements of this Module are in addition to and supplement Decree Law No. (4) of 2001 with respect to the prevention and prohibition of the laundering of money; this Law was subsequently updated, with the issuance of Decree Law No. 54 of 2006 with respect to amending certain provisions of Decree No. 4 of 2001 (collectively, 'the AML Law'). The AML Law imposes obligations on persons generally in relation to the prevention of money laundering and the combating of the financing of terrorism, to all persons resident in Bahrain. All specialised licensees are therefore under the statutory obligations of that Law, in addition to the more specific requirements contained in this Module. Nothing in this Module is intended to restrict the application of the AML Law (a copy of which is contained in Part B of Volume 5 (Specialised licensees), under 'Supplementary Information'). Also included in Part B is a copy of Decree Law No. 58 of 2006 with respect to the protection of society from terrorism activities ('the anti-terrorism law).

          October 2010

      • FC-B.2 FC-B.2 Overseas Subsidiaries and Branches

        • FC-B.2.1

          Licensees must apply the requirements in this Module to all their branches and subsidiaries operating both in the Kingdom of Bahrain and in foreign jurisdictions. Where local standards differ, the higher standard must be followed. Licensees must pay particular attention to procedures in branches or subsidiaries in countries that do not or insufficiently apply the FATF Recommendations and Special Recommendations.

          October 2010

        • FC-B.2.2

          Where another jurisdiction's laws or regulations prevent a licensee (or any of its foreign branches or subsidiaries) from applying the same standards contained in this Module or higher, the licensee must immediately inform the CBB in writing.

          October 2010

        • FC-B.2.3

          In such instances, the CBB will review alternatives with the licensee. Should the CBB and the licensee be unable to reach agreement on the satisfactory implementation of this Module in a foreign subsidiary or branch, the licensee may be required by the CBB to cease the operations of the subsidiary or branch in the foreign jurisdiction in question.

          October 2010

        • FC-B.2.4

          Financial groups (e.g. a licensee with its subsidiaries) must implement groupwide programmes against money laundering and terrorist financing, including policies and procedures for sharing information within the group for AML/CFT purposes, which must also be applicable, and appropriate to, all branches and subsidiaries of the financial group. These must include:

          (a) The development of internal policies, procedures and controls, including appropriate compliance management arrangements, and adequate screening procedures to ensure high standards when hiring employees;
          (b) An ongoing employee training programme;
          (c) An independent audit function to test the system;
          (d) Policies and procedures for sharing information required for the purposes of CDD and money laundering and terrorist financing risk management;
          (e) The provision at group-level compliance, audit, and/or AML/CFT functions of customer, account and transaction information from branches and subsidiaries when necessary for AML/CFT purposes; and
          (f) Adequate safeguards on the confidentiality and use of information exchanged.
          Added: January 2018

    • FC-1 FC-1 Customer Due Diligence

      • FC-1.1 FC-1.1 General Requirements

        • Verification of Identity and Source of Funds

          • FC-1.1.1

            Licensees must establish effective systematic internal procedures for establishing and verifying the identity of their customers and the source of their funds. Such procedures must be set out in writing and approved by the licensee's senior management. They must be strictly adhered to.

            Amended: January 2020
            Added: October 2010

          • FC-1.1.2

            Licensees must implement the customer due diligence measures outlined in Chapters 1, 2 and 3 when:

            (a) [This Sub-paragraph was deleted in July 2018];
            (b) Carrying out wire transfers (of the equivalent of US$1,000 or above) (particularly relevant for money changers);
            (c) Establishing business relations with a new or existing customer;
            (d) A change to the signatory or beneficiary of an existing account or business relationship is made;
            (e) Customer documentation standards change substantially;
            (f) The licensee has doubts about the veracity or adequacy of previously obtained customer due diligence information;
            (g) A significant transaction takes place (see FC-2.2.3);
            (h) There is a material change in the way that an account is operated or in the manner in which the business relationship is conducted; or
            (i) There is a suspicion of money laundering or terrorist financing.
            Amended: January 2021
            Amended: July 2018
            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.2A

            Licensees must understand, and as appropriate, obtain information on the purpose and intended nature of the business relationship.

            Added: October 2017

          • FC-1.1.2B

            Licensees must conduct ongoing due diligence on the business relationship, including:

            (a) Scrutinizing transactions undertaken throughout the course of that relationship to ensure that the transactions being conducted are consistent with the institution's knowledge of the customer, their business and risk profile, including, where necessary, the source of funds; and
            (b) Ensuring that documents, data or information collected under the CDD process is kept up-to-date and relevant, by undertaking reviews of existing records, particularly for higher risk categories of customers.
            Added: October 2017

          • FC-1.1.3

            Representative office licensees are not allowed to undertake business directly with customers. However, they may be assigned by the Head Office to contact new or existing customers on their behalf, in this case they must pay regard to (c) – (f) and (h-i) customer due diligence measures listed under FC-1.1.2 above.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.4

            For the purposes of this Module, "customer" includes counterparties such as financial markets counterparties, except where financial institutions are acting as principals where simplified due diligence measures may apply. These simplified measures are set out in Section FC 1.10. For the representative office licensees, 'customer' includes customers of the HO that the Representative office liaises with for general purposes. Examples might include general inquiries and inquiries regarding the accuracy of customer information.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.5

            The CBB's specific minimum standards to be followed with respect to verifying customer identity and source of funds are contained in Section FC-1.2 and in the Guidance Notes (See Supplementary Information, FC-7 in Part B of the Rulebook). Enhanced requirements apply under certain high-risk situations: these requirements are contained in Sections FC-1.3 to FC-1.9 inclusive. Additional requirements apply where a licensee is relying on a professional intermediary to perform certain parts of the customer due diligence process: these are detailed in Section FC-1.7. Simplified customer due diligence measures may apply in defined circumstances: these are set out in Section FC-1.10.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.5A

            Financing company licensees and payment service providers must not onboard natural persons resident in countries outside the GCC through digital onboarding process. Onboarding of customers resident outside Bahrain must be subject to the enhanced due diligence requirements outlined in Section FC-1.3.

            Added: January 2021

          • FC-1.1.5B

            Money changers must not register persons identified as having high-risk profiles, including those whose CPR has expired, for the purposes of the use of online channels or applications, without conducting the enhanced due diligence requirements outlined in Section FC-1.3.

            Added: January 2021

        • Verification of Third Parties

          • FC-1.1.6

            Licensees must obtain a signed statement from all new customers (or for one-off transactions above the BD6,000 threshold for moneychangers) confirming whether or not the customer is acting on their own behalf or not. This undertaking must be obtained prior to conducting any transactions with the customer concerned.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.7

            Where a customer is acting on behalf of a third party, the licensee must also obtain a signed statement from the third party, confirming they have given authority to the customer to act on their behalf. Where the third party is a legal person, the licensee must have sight of the original board resolution (or other applicable document) authorising the customer to act on the third party's behalf, and retain a certified copy. Representative office licensees must obtain a signed statement from all new customers confirming whether or not the customer is acting on their own behalf or not.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.8

            Licensees must establish and verify the identity of the customer and (where applicable) the party/parties on whose behalf the customer is acting, including the Beneficial Owner of the funds. Verification must take place in accordance with the requirements specified in this Chapter.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.9

            Where financial services are provided to a minor or other person lacking full legal capacity, the normal identification procedures as set out in this Chapter must be followed. In the case of minors, licensees must additionally verify the identity of the parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Where a third party on behalf of a person lacking full legal capacity wishes to open business relations, the licensee must establish the identity of that third party as well as the person conducting the business.

            October 2010

        • Anonymous and Nominee Accounts

          • FC-1.1.10

            Licensees must not establish or keep anonymous accounts or accounts in fictitious names. Where licensees maintain a nominee account, which is controlled by or held for the benefit of another person, the identity of that person must be disclosed to the licensee and verified by it in accordance with the requirements specified in this Chapter.

            October 2010

        • Timing of Verification

          • FC-1.1.11

            Licensees must not commence a business relationship or undertake an occasional transaction (above the threshold) with a customer before completion of the relevant customer due diligence measures specified in Chapters 1, 2 and 3. However, verification may be completed after receipt of funds in the case of non face-to-face business, or the subsequent submission of CDD documents by the customer after initial face-to face contact, providing that no disbursement of funds takes place until after the requirements of this Chapter have been fully met.

            October 2010

        • Incomplete Customer Due Diligence

          • FC-1.1.12

            Where a licensee is unable to comply with the requirements specified in Chapters 1, 2 and 3, it must consider whether to terminate the relationship or not proceed with the transaction. If it proceeds with the transaction (to avoid tipping off the customer), it should additionally consider whether it should file a suspicious transaction report.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.1.13

            See also Chapter FC-5, which covers the filing of suspicious transaction reports.

            October 2010

      • FC-1.2 FC-1.2 Face-to-face Business

        • Natural Persons

          • FC-1.2.1

            If the customer is a natural person, licensees must obtain and record the following information (in hard copy or electronic form), before providing financial services as described in Paragraph FC-1.1.2:

            (a) Full legal name and any other names used;
            (b) Full permanent address (i.e. the residential address of the customer; a post office box is insufficient);
            (c) Date and place of birth;
            (d) Nationality;
            (e) Passport number (if the customer is a passport holder);
            (f) CPR or residence permit number (for residents of Bahrain or GCC states);
            (g) Telephone/fax number and email address (where applicable);
            (h) Occupation or public position held (where applicable);
            (i) Employer's name and address (if self-employed, the nature of the self-employment);
            (j) Type of account, and nature and volume of anticipated business dealings with the licensee;
            (k) Signature of the customer(s);
            (l) Source of funds; and
            (m) Reason for opening the account.
            Amended: January 2020
            Added: October 2010

          • FC-1.2.2

            See the Guidance Notes (filed under Supplementary Information in Part B of Volume 5) for further information on source of funds (FC-1.2.1 (1)) and CDD requirements for Bahrain residents (FC-1.2.1 (c) & (f)).

            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.3

            Licensees must verify the information in Paragraph FC-1.2.1 (a) to (f), by the following methods below; at least one of the copies of the identification documents mentioned in (a) and (b) below must include a clear photograph of the customer:

            (a) Confirmation of the date of birth and legal name, by taking a copy of a current valid official original identification document (e.g. birth certificate, passport, CPR or residence permit number);
            (b) Confirmation of the permanent residential address by taking a copy of a recent utility bill, bank statement or similar statement from another licensee or financial institution, or some form of official correspondence or official documentation card, such as CPR, from a public/governmental authority, or a tenancy agreement or record of home visit by an official of the licensee (see also Guidance Notes under Part B Supplementary Information Appendix FC-(v); and
            (c) Where appropriate, direct contact with the customer by phone, letter or email to confirm relevant information, such as residential address information.
            Amended: January 2013
            Amended: April 2012
            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.4

            Any document copied for the purpose of identification verification must be an original. An authorised official of the licensee must certify the copy, by writing on it the words 'original sighted', together with the date and his signature. Equivalent measures must be taken for electronic copies.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.5

            Identity documents which are not obtained by an authorised official of the licensee in original form (e.g. due to a customer sending a copy by post following an initial meeting) must instead be certified (as per FC-1.2.4) by one of the following from a GCC or FATF member state:

            (a) A lawyer;
            (b) A notary;
            (c) A chartered/certified accountant;
            (d) An official of a government ministry;
            (e) An official of an embassy or consulate; or
            (f) An official of another licensed financial institution or of a licensed associate company of the licensee.
            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.6

            The individual making the certification under FC-1.2.5 must give clear contact details (e.g. by attaching a business card or company stamp). The licensee must verify the identity of the person providing the certification through checking membership of a professional organisation (for lawyers or accountants), or through checking against databases/websites, or by direct phone or email contact.

            October 2010

        • Legal Entities or Legal Arrangements (such as trusts)

          • FC-1.2.7

            If the customer is a legal entity or a legal arrangement such as a trust, the licensee must obtain and record the following information from original identification documents, databases or websites, in hard copy or electronic form, identify the customer and to take reasonable measures to verify its identity, legal existence and structure:

            (a) The entity's full name and other trading names used;
            (b) Registration number (or equivalent);
            (c) Legal form and proof of existence;
            (d) Registered address and trading address (where applicable);
            (e) Type of business activity;
            (f) Date and place of incorporation or establishment;
            (g) Telephone, fax number and email address;
            (h) Regulatory body or listing body (for regulated activities such as financial services and listed companies);
            (hh) The names of the relevant persons having a senior management position in the legal entity or legal arrangement;
            (i) Name of external auditor (where applicable);
            (j) Type of account, and nature and volume of anticipated business dealings with the licensee; and
            (k) Source of funds.
            Amended: October 2017
            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.8

            The information provided under Paragraph FC-1.2.7 must be verified by obtaining certified copies of the following documents, as applicable (depending on the legal form of the entity):

            (a) Certificate of incorporation and/or certificate of commercial registration or trust deed;
            (b) Memorandum of association;
            (c) Articles of association;
            (d) Partnership agreement;
            (e) Board resolution seeking financial services (only necessary in the case of private or unlisted companies);
            (f) Identification documentation of the authorised signatories of the account (certification not necessary for companies listed in a GCC/FATF state);
            (g) Copy of the latest financial report and accounts, audited where possible (audited copies do not need to be certified); and
            (h) List of persons authorised to do business on behalf of the company and in the case of the opening of an account, a board resolution (or other applicable document) authorising the named persons to operate the account (resolution only necessary for private or unlisted companies).
            Amended: July 2016
            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.8A

            For customers that are legal persons, Licensees must identify and take reasonable measures to verify the identity of beneficial owners through the following information:

            (a) The identity of the natural person(s) who ultimately have a controlling ownership interest in a legal person, and
            (b) To the extent that there is doubt under (a) as to whether the person(s) with the controlling ownership interest is the beneficial owner(s), or where no natural person exerts control of the legal person or arrangement through other means; and
            (c) Where no natural person is identified under (a) or (b) above, the identity of the relevant natural person who holds the position of senior managing official.
            Added: October 2017

          • FC-1.2.9

            Documents obtained to satisfy the requirements in Paragraph FC-1.2.8 above must be certified in the manner specified in Paragraphs FC-1.2.4 to FC-1.2.6.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.9A

            For the purpose of Paragraph FC-1.2.8(a), the requirement to obtain a certified copy of the commercial registration, may be satisfied by obtaining a commercial registration abstract printed directly from the Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism's website, through "SIJILAT Commercial Registration Portal".

            Added: January 2017

          • FC-1.2.10

            The documentary requirements in Paragraph FC-1.2.8 above do not apply in the case of FATF/GCC listed companies: see Section FC-1.10 below. Also, the documents listed in Paragraph FC-1.2.8 above are not exhaustive: for customers from overseas jurisdictions, documents of an equivalent nature may be produced as satisfactory evidence of a customer's identity.

            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.11

            Licensees must also obtain and document the following due diligence information. These due diligence requirements must be incorporated in the licensee's new business procedures:

            (a) Enquire as to the structure of the legal entity or trust sufficient to determine and verify the identity of the ultimate beneficial owner of the funds, the ultimate provider of funds (if different), and the ultimate controller of the funds (if different);
            (b) Ascertain whether the legal entity has been or is in the process of being wound up, dissolved, struck off or terminated;
            (c) Obtain the names, country of residence and nationality of directors or partners (only necessary for private or unlisted companies);
            (d) Require, through new customer documentation or other transparent means, updates on significant changes to corporate ownership and/or legal structure;
            (e) Obtain and verify the identity of shareholders holding 20% or more of the issued capital (where applicable). The requirement to verify the identity of these shareholders does not apply in the case of FATF/GCC listed companies;
            (f) In the case of trusts or similar arrangements (excluding employee benefit trusts and occupational savings schemes), establish the identity of the settlor(s), trustee(s), and beneficiaries (including making such reasonable enquiries as to ascertain the identity of any other potential beneficiary, in addition to the named beneficiaries of the trust); and
            (g) Where a licensee has reasonable grounds for questioning the authenticity of the information supplied by a customer, conduct additional due diligence to confirm the above information.
            Amended: April 2013
            October 2010

          • FC-1.2.11A

            In the case of employee benefit trusts and occupational savings schemes, the licensee must establish the identity of the settlor and trustee as required in FC-1.2.11(f), but may rely upon the settlor to maintain the identity information of the beneficiaries, subject to written confirmation from the settlor that such information has been collected.

            Added: April 2013

          • FC-1.2.12

            For the purposes of Paragraph FC-1.2.11, acceptable means of undertaking such due diligence might include taking bank references; visiting or contacting the company by telephone; undertaking a company search or other commercial enquiries; accessing public and private databases (such as stock exchange lists); making enquiries through a business information service or credit bureau; confirming a company's status with an appropriate legal or accounting firm; or undertaking other enquiries that are commercially reasonable.

            October 2010

      • FC-1.3 FC-1.3 Enhanced Customer Due Diligence: General Requirements

        • FC-1.3.1

          Enhanced customer due diligence must be performed on those customers identified as having a higher risk profile, and additional inquiries made or information obtained in respect of those customers.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.3.2

          The additional information referred to in Paragraph FC-1.3.1 might include documents (either in hard copy or electronic format) relating to the following:

          (a) Evidence of a person's permanent address through the use of a credit reference agency search or through independent verification by home visit;
          (b) A personal reference (e.g. by an existing customer of the licensee);
          (c) Another licensed entity's reference and contact with the concerned licensee regarding the customer;
          (d) Documentation outlining the customer's source of wealth;
          (e) Documentation outlining the customer's source of income; and
          (f) Independent verification of employment, or public position held.
          October 2010

        • FC-1.3.3

          In addition to the general rule contained in Paragraph FC-1.3.1 above, special care is required in the circumstances specified in Sections FC-1.4 to FC-1.9 inclusive.

          October 2010

      • FC-1.4 FC-1.4 Enhanced Customer Due Diligence: Non face-to-face Business and New Technologies

        • FC-1.4.1

          Licensees must establish specific procedures for verifying customer identity where no face-to-face contact takes place.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.4.2

          Where no face-to-face contact takes place, licensees must take additional measures (to those specified in Section FC-1.2), in order to mitigate the potentially higher risk associated with such business. In particular, licensees must take measures:

          (a) To ensure that the customer is the person they claim to be; and
          (b) To ensure that the address provided is genuinely the customer's.
          October 2010

        • FC-1.4.3

          There are a number of checks that can provide a licensee with a reasonable degree of assurance as to the authenticity of the applicant. They include:

          (a) Telephone contact with the applicant on an independently verified home or business number;
          (b) With the customer's consent, contacting an employer to confirm employment, via phone through a listed number or in writing; and
          (c) Salary details appearing on recent bank statements.
          October 2010

        • FC-1.4.4

          Financial services provided via post, telephone or internet pose greater challenges for customer identification and AML/CFT purposes. Licensees must establish procedures to prevent the misuse of technological developments in money laundering or terrorist financing schemes. Licensees must also ensure that they comply with any e-commerce laws and/or CBB Modules issued from time to time.

          October 2010

      • FC-1.5 FC-1.5 Enhanced Customer Due Diligence: Politically Exposed Persons (“PEPs”)

        • FC-1.5.1

          Licensees must have appropriate risk management systems to determine whether a customer is a Politically Exposed Person ('PEP'), both at the time of establishing business relations and thereafter on a periodic basis. Licensees must utilise publicly available databases and information to establish whether a customer is a PEP.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.5.2

          Licensees must establish a client acceptance policy with regard to PEPs, taking into account the reputational and other risks involved. Senior management approval must be obtained before a PEP is accepted as a customer.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.5.3

          Where an existing customer is a PEP, or subsequently becomes a PEP, enhanced monitoring and customer due diligence measures must include:

          (a) Analysis of complex financial structures, including trusts, foundations or international business corporations;
          (b) A written record in the customer file to establish that reasonable measures have been taken to establish both the source of wealth and the source of funds;
          (c) Development of a profile of anticipated customer activity, to be used in on-going monitoring;
          (d) Approval of senior management for allowing the customer relationship to continue; and
          (e) Ongoing account monitoring of the PEP's account by senior management (such as the MLRO).
          October 2010

        • FC-1.5.4

          [This Paragraph was deleted in July 2016 as the definition is included under Part B in the Glossary.]

          Deleted: July 2016
          October 2010

      • FC-1.6 FC-1.6 Enhanced Due Diligence: Charities, Clubs and Other Societies

        • FC-1.6.1

          Financial services must not be provided to charitable funds and religious, sporting, social, cooperative and professional societies, before an original certificate authenticated by the relevant Ministry confirming the identities of those purporting to act on their behalf (and authorising them to obtain the said service) has been obtained. Money changers are allowed to conduct business with charities without a certificate where payment is made by a cheque drawn on a bank licensed in Bahrain.

          Amended: January 2021
          October 2010

        • FC-1.6.2

          Charities should be subject to enhanced transaction monitoring. Money changers should develop a profile of anticipated activity (in terms of payee countries and recipient organisations in particular).

          Amended: January 2021
          October 2010

        • FC-1.6.3

          Money changers must provide a monthly report of all payments and transfers of BD3,000 (or equivalent in foreign currencies) and above performed on behalf of charities registered in Bahrain. The report must be submitted to the CBB's Compliance Directorate (see Section FC-5.3 for contact address), giving details of the amount transferred, name of charity, number and beneficiary name account and bank details. Licensees must ensure that such transfers are in accordance with the spending plans of the charity (in terms of amount, recipient and country).

          Amended: January 2021
          October 2010

        • FC-1.6.4

          Article 20 of Decree Law No. 21 of 1989 (issuing the Law of Social and Cultural Societies and Clubs and Private Organizations Operating in the Area of Youth and Sport and Private Institutions) provides that money changer licensees and payment service providers must not accept or process any incoming or outgoing fund transfers in any form (wire transfer, drafts, etc.) from or to any foreign person or foreign association on behalf of societies and clubs licensed by the Ministry of Youth and Sport Affairs without prior written approval of the Ministry.

          Amended: October 2019
          October 2010

        • FC-1.6.5

          The receipt of a Ministry letter mentioned in Paragraph FC-1.6.4 above does not exempt the concerned money changer from conducting normal CDD measures as outlined in other parts of this Module.

          Amended: January 2021
          October 2010

      • FC-1.7 FC-1.7 Introduced Business from Professional Intermediaries

        • FC-1.7.1

          A licensee may only accept customers introduced to it by other financial institutions or intermediaries, if it has satisfied itself that the introducer concerned is subject to FATF-equivalent measures and customer due diligence measures. Where licensees delegate part of the customer due diligence measures to an introducer, the responsibility for meeting the requirements of Chapters 1 and 2 remains with the licensee, not the introducer.

          Amended: January 2018
          October 2010

        • FC-1.7.2

          Licensees may only accept introduced business if all of the following conditions are satisfied:

          (a) The customer due diligence measures applied by the introducer are consistent with those required by the FATF 40 + 9 Recommendations;
          (b) A formal agreement is in place defining the respective roles of the licensee and the introducer in relation to customer due diligence measures. The agreement must specify that the customer due diligence measures of the introducer will comply with the FATF 40 + 9 Recommendations;
          (c) The introducer is able to provide all relevant data pertaining to the customer's identity, the identity of the customer and beneficial owner of the funds and, where applicable, the party/parties on whose behalf the customer is acting; also, the introducer has confirmed that the licensee will be allowed to verify the customer due diligence measures undertaken by the introducer at any stage; and
          (d) Written confirmation is provided by the introducer confirming that all customer due diligence measures required by the FATF 40 + 9 Recommendations have been followed and the customer's identity established and verified. In addition, the confirmation must state that any identification documents or other customer due diligence material can be accessed by the licensee and that these documents will be kept for at least five years after the business relationship has ended.
          October 2010

        • FC-1.7.3

          The licensee must perform periodic reviews ensuring that any introducer on which it relies is in compliance with the FATF 40 + 9 Recommendations. Where the introducer is resident in another jurisdiction, the licensee must also perform periodic reviews to verify whether the jurisdiction is in compliance with the FATF 40 + 9 Recommendations.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.7.4

          Should the licensee not be satisfied that the introducer is in compliance with the requirements of the FATF 40 + 9 Recommendations, the licensee must conduct its own customer due diligence on introduced business, or not accept further introductions, or discontinue the business relationship with the introducer.

          October 2010

      • FC-1.8 FC-1.8 Shell Banks

        • FC-1.8.1

          Licensees must not establish business relations with banks, which have no physical presence or "mind and management" in the jurisdiction in which they are licensed and which are unaffiliated with a regulated financial group ("shell banks"). Licensees must not knowingly establish relations with financial institutions that have relations with shell banks.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.8.2

          Licensees must make a suspicious transaction report to the Financial Intelligence Directorate and the Compliance Directorate if they are approached by a shell bank or an institution they suspect of being a shell bank.

          Amended: October 2019
          October 2010

      • FC-1.9 FC-1.9 Enhanced Due Diligence: Cross Border Cash Transactions by Courier

        • FC-1.9.1

          The cross-border movement of cash funds warrants special attention under the FATF 40 Recommendations where transactions are large in value (Recommendation 6), in addition to the general requirement under Recommendation 19 to verify monitor, declare and keep records of all cross-border transfers of cash. Cash shipments are therefore subject to inspection and investigation procedures by the Customs Directorate of the Kingdom of Bahrain. There are also certain specific legal measures mentioned below which are relevant to cross-border cash shipments. Under Article 4 of Decree Law No. 4 of 2001, licensees of the CBB are required to comply with the CBB's Rules and Regulations concerning the prevention and prohibition of money laundering, which include regulations concerning the cross-border movement of cash. Also, licensees' attention is drawn to the disclosure provisions of Decree Law No 54 of 2006 and Ministerial Order No 6 of 2008 with respect to cross-border transportation of funds (see Part B of the Rulebook for Decree Law No 54). Licensees are also reminded of the rules of the unified customs arrangements of the Gulf Cooperation Council as laid out in Decree Law No 10 of 2002. With respect to the above Law No. 4 of 2001 and the concerned parts of other legislation mentioned above, all money changers must implement the enhanced measures below in respect of all cash received from foreign countries or sold/transferred to foreign countries.

          Amended: January 2021
          October 2010

        • FC-1.9.2

          Cash coming into Bahrain via courier (whether a representative of a Bahrain money changer or a foreign institution) must be accompanied by original documentation stating the source of funds and identity of the originator of the funds. Furthermore, the documentation must state the full name and address of the beneficiary of the funds. This documentation must be signed in original by (a representative) of the originator of the cash. This means that where a courier is importing cash via any customs point of entry (e.g. via the Causeway or the Airport), the aforementioned courier must carry original documentation which clearly shows the source of funds and identity of the originator of the funds and the intended beneficiaries' names and address.

          Amended: January 2021
          Amended: July 2018
          October 2010

        • FC-1.9.3

          In the case of incoming cash, the courier must carry original documentation signed by the originator stating whether the cash shipment is for local use or for onward transmission.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.9.4

          If the imported cash is for onward transmission, the original documentation must provide the full name and address of the final beneficiaries, as well as the local recipient (e.g. the money changer).

          Amended: January 2021
          October 2010

        • FC-1.9.5

          Failure to provide complete and detailed original signed documentation by the originator of the funds referred to in Paragraph FC-1.9.2 may cause the cash shipment to be blocked, whereupon the blocking costs will be borne by the concerned money changer in Bahrain. Licensees are also reminded of the penalties and enforcement measures in Law No. 4 of 2001, Decree Law No. 54 of 2006, Ministerial Order No. 7 of 2001 issued by the Minister of Finance and National Economy, the rules of the unified customs arrangements of the Gulf Cooperation Council as laid out in Decree Law No. 10 of 2002 and the CBB Law No. 64 of 2006.

          Amended: January 2021
          October 2010

      • FC-1.10 FC-1.10 Simplified Customer Due Diligence

        • FC-1.10.1

          Licensees may apply simplified customer due diligence measures, as described in Paragraphs FC-1.10.2 to FC-1.10.7, if:

          (a) [This Subparagraph was deleted in July 2018];
          (b) The transaction is a wire transfer below the equivalent of US$1000;
          (c) The customer is a company listed on a GCC or FATF member state stock exchange with equivalent disclosure standards to those of a licensed exchange;
          (d) The customer is a financial institution whose entire operations are subject to AML/CFT requirements consistent with the FATF Recommendations / Special Recommendations and it is supervised by a financial services supervisor in a FATF or GCC member state for compliance with those requirements;
          (e) The customer is a financial institution which is a subsidiary of a financial institution located in a FATF or GCC member state, and the AML/CFT requirements applied to its parent also apply to the subsidiary;
          (f) The customer is the Central Bank of Bahrain ('CBB'), a licensed exchange or a licensee of the CBB; or
          (g) The customer is a Ministry of a Gulf Cooperation Council ('GCC') or Financial Action Task Force ('FATF') member state government, a company in which a GCC government is a majority shareholder, or a company established by decree in the GCC.
          Amended: January 2019
          Amended: July 2018
          Amended: January 2018
          Amended: April 2013
          October 2010

        • FC-1.10.2

          For customers falling under categories (c) to (g) specified in Paragraph FC-1.10.1, the information required under Paragraph FC-1.2.1 (for natural persons) or FC-1.2.7 (for legal entities) must be obtained. However, the verification, certification and due diligence requirements in Paragraphs FC-1.2.3, FC-1.2.5, FC-1.2.8, FC-1.2.9 and FC-1.2.11, may be dispensed with.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.10.3

          [This Paragraph was deleted in July 2018].

          Deleted: July 2018
          October 2010

        • FC-1.10.4

          Licensees wishing to apply simplified due diligence measures as allowed for under categories (c) to (g) of Paragraph FC-1.10.1 must retain documentary evidence supporting their categorisation of the customer.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.10.5

          Examples of such documentary evidence may include a printout from a regulator's website, confirming the licensed status of an institution, and internal papers attesting to a review of the AML/CFT measures applied in a jurisdiction.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.10.6

          Licensees may use authenticated SWIFT messages as a basis for confirmation of the identity of a financial institution under Subparagraphs FC-1.10.1 (d) and (e) where it is dealing as principal. For customers coming under Subparagraphs FC-1.10.1 (d) and (e), licensees must also obtain and retain a written statement from the parent institution of the subsidiary concerned, confirming that the subsidiary is subject to the same AML/CFT measures as its parent.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.10.7

          Simplified customer due diligence measures must not be applied where a licensee knows, suspects, or has reason to suspect, that the applicant is engaged in money laundering or terrorism financing or that the transaction is carried out on behalf of another person engaged in money laundering or terrorism financing.

          October 2010

        • FC-1.10.8

          [This Paragraph was deleted in July 2018].

          Deleted: July 2018
          October 2010

    • FC-2 FC-2 AML / CFT Systems and Controls

      • FC-2.1 FC-2.1 General Requirements

        • FC-2.1.1

          Licensees must take reasonable care to establish and maintain appropriate systems and controls for compliance with the requirements of this Module and to limit their vulnerability to financial crime. These systems and controls must be documented, and approved and reviewed annually by the Board of the licensee. The documentation, and the Board's review and approval, must be made available upon request to the CBB.

          October 2010

        • FC-2.1.2

          The above systems and controls, and associated documented policies and procedures, should cover standards for customer acceptance, on-going monitoring of high-risk accounts, staff training and adequate screening procedures to ensure high standards when hiring employees.

          October 2010

        • FC-2.1.3

          Licensees must incorporate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to ensure compliance with AML/CFT requirements by all staff. The performance against the KPIs must be adequately reflected in their annual performance evaluation and in their remuneration (See also Paragraph HC-5.4.2 for Financing Companies and Microfinance Institutions, HC-5.2.4 for Ancillary Service Providers and HC-4.2.1 for Money Changers).

          Amended: January 2021
          Added: April 2020

        • FC-2.1.4

          In implementing the policies, procedures and monitoring tools for ensuring compliance with Paragraph FC-2.1.3, licensees should consider the following:

          (a) The business policies and practices should be designed to reduce incentives for staff to expose the licensee to AML/CFT compliance risk;
          (b) The performance measures of departments/divisions/units and personnel should include measures to address AML/CFT compliance obligations;
          (c) AML/CFT compliance breaches and deficiencies should be attributed to the relevant departments/divisions/units and personnel within the organisation as appropriate;
          (d) Remuneration and bonuses should be adjusted for AML/CFT compliance breaches and deficiencies; and
          (e) Both quantitative measures and human judgement should play a role in determining any adjustments to the remuneration and bonuses resulting from the above.
          Added: April 2020

      • FC-2.2 FC-2.2 Ongoing Customer Due Diligence and Transaction Monitoring

        • Risk Based Monitoring

          • FC-2.2.1

            Licensees must develop risk-based monitoring systems appropriate to the complexity of their business, their number of customers and types of transactions. These systems must be configured to identify significant or abnormal transactions or patterns of activity. Such systems must include limits on the number, types or size of transactions undertaken outside expected norms; and must include limits for cash and non-cash transactions.

            October 2010

          • FC-2.2.2

            Licensees' risk-based monitoring systems should therefore be configured to help identify:

            (a) Transactions which do not appear to have a clear purpose or which make no obvious economic sense;
            (b) Significant or large transactions not consistent with the normal or expected behavior of a customer; and
            (c) Unusual patterns of activity (relative to other customers of the same profile or of similar types of transactions, for instance because of differences in terms of volumes, transaction type, or flows to or from certain countries), or activity outside the expected or regular pattern of a customer's account activity.
            October 2010

        • Automated Transaction Monitoring

          • FC-2.2.3

            Licensees must consider the need to include automated transaction monitoring as part of their risk-based monitoring systems to spot abnormal or unusual flows of funds. In the absence of automated transaction monitoring systems, all transactions above BD 6,000 must be viewed as "significant" and be captured in a daily transactions report for monitoring by the MLRO or a relevant delegated official, and records retained by the licensee for five years after the date of the transaction.

            October 2010

          • FC-2.2.3A

            In the case of trust service providers (or any other licensee that does not handle customer funds) such licensees should monitor bank statements and other records to ensure that they are aware of "significant" transactions on a timely basis.

            Added: April 2013

          • FC-2.2.4

            The CBB would expect larger licensees to include automated transaction monitoring as part of their risk-based monitoring systems. See also Chapters FC-4 and FC-7, regarding the responsibilities of the MLRO and record-keeping requirements.

            October 2010

        • Unusual Transactions or Customer Behaviour

          • FC-2.2.5

            Where a licensee's risk-based monitoring systems identify significant or abnormal transactions (as defined in Paragraphs FC-2.2.2 and FC-2.2.3), it must verify the source of funds for those transactions, particularly where the transactions are above the occasional transactions threshold of BD 6,000. Furthermore, licensees must examine the background and purpose to those transactions and document their findings. In the case of one-off transactions where there is no ongoing account relationship, the licensee must file an STR if it is unable to verify the source of funds to its satisfaction (see Chapter FC-5).

            October 2010

          • FC-2.2.6

            The investigations required under Paragraph FC-2.2.5 must be carried out by the MLRO (or relevant delegated official). The documents relating to these findings must be maintained for five years from the date when the transaction was completed (see also Subparagraph FC-7.1.1 (b)).

            October 2010

          • FC-2.2.7

            Licensees must consider instances where there is a significant, unexpected or unexplained change in customer activity.

            October 2010

          • FC-2.2.8

            When an existing customer closes one account and opens another, the licensee must review its customer identity information and update its records accordingly. Where the information available falls short of the requirements contained in Chapter FC-1, the missing or out of date information must be obtained and re-verified with the customer.

            October 2010

          • FC-2.2.9

            Once identification procedures have been satisfactorily completed and, as long as records concerning the customer are maintained in line with Chapters FC-1 and FC-7, no further evidence of identity is needed when transactions are subsequently undertaken within the expected level and type of activity for that customer, provided reasonably regular contact has been maintained between the parties and no doubts have arisen as to the customer's identity.

            October 2010

        • On-going Monitoring

          • FC-2.2.10

            Licensees must take reasonable steps to:

            (a) Scrutinize transactions undertaken throughout the course of that relationship to ensure that transactions being conducted are consistent with the licensee's knowledge of the customer, their business risk and risk profile; and
            (b) Ensure that they receive and maintain up-to-date and relevant copies of the identification documents specified in Chapter FC-1, by undertaking reviews of existing records, particularly for higher risk categories of customers. Licensees must require all customers to provide up-to-date identification documents in their standard terms and conditions of business.
            Amended: October 2017
            October 2010

          • FC-2.2.11

            Licensees must review and update their customer due diligence information at least every three years, particularly for higher risk categories of customers. If, upon performing such a review, copies of identification documents are more than 12 months out of date, the licensee must take steps to obtain updated copies as soon as possible.

            Amended: October 2017
            October 2010

    • FC-3 FC-3 Money Transfers and Alternative Remittances

      • FC-3.1 FC-3.1 Electronic Transfers

        • Outward Transfers

          • FC-3.1.1

            Licensees must include all required originator information details with the accompanying electronic transfers of funds they make on behalf of their customers. Non-routine transfers must not be batched, if batching increases the risks of money laundering or terrorist financing. This obligation does not apply where the transfer is made by a licensee acting as principal or acting on behalf of another licensee as principal such as in the case of payment of spot FX transactions.

            October 2010

          • FC-3.1.2

            For the purposes of this Chapter, "Originator Information" means:

            (a) The name of the payer;
            (b) The address of the payer; and
            (c) The unique customer or transaction or account number of the payer.
            Amended: April 2012
            October 2010

          • FC-3.1.3

            It is not necessary for the recipient institution to pass the originator information on to the payee. The obligation is discharged simply by notifying the recipient institution of the originator information at the time the transfer is made.

            October 2010

        • Inward Transfers

          • FC-3.1.4

            Licensees must:

            (a) Maintain records (in accordance with Chapter FC-7 of this Module) of all originator information received with an inward transfer (see Section FC-1.10 for simplified arrangements for transfers below US$1,000); and
            (b) Carefully scrutinise inward transfers which do not contain originator information (i.e. full name, address and account number or a unique customer identification number – see Paragraph FC-1.9.1 for simplified arrangements). Licensees must presume that such transfers are "suspicious transactions" and pass them to the MLRO for review for determination as to possible filing of an STR, unless (a), the sending institution is able to promptly (i.e. within two business days) advise the licensee in writing of the originator information upon the licensee's request; or (b), the sending institution and the licensee are acting on their own behalf (as principals); or (c), the inward transfer is below US$1,000 or equivalent in other currencies.
            Amended: April 2012
            October 2010

        • Rejecting Payment Transactions

          • FC-3.1.5

            Licensees have the right to reject (i.e. reverse) any payment transaction/ money transfer where it has come to their knowledge that the relevant customer did not actually initiate the transaction instruction/ money transfer instruction. Licensees must file a Suspicious Transactions Report for such cases.

            Added: January 2021

      • FC-3.2 FC-3.2 Remittances on Behalf of other Money Transferors

        • FC-3.2.1

          Whenever a licensee uses the services of Authorised Money Transferors to effect the transfer of funds for a customer to a person or organisation in another country, that licensee must, in respect of the amount so transferred, maintain records of:

          (a) The identity of its customer(s) in accordance with Chapters FC-1 and FC-7 of this Module; and
          (b) The exact amount transferred for each such customer (particularly where a single transfer is effected for more than one customer).
          Amended: April 2012
          October 2010

        • FC-3.2.2

          Licensees must be able to produce this information for inspection immediately upon request by the CBB.

          October 2010

        • FC-3.2.3

          Licensees must not transfer funds for customers to a person or organisation in another country by any means other than through an Authorised Money Transferor. Where a licensee is found to be in contravention of this rule, the CBB will not hesitate to impose sanctions upon that licensee (and in serious cases may revoke the license).

          October 2010

    • FC-4 FC-4 Money Laundering Reporting Officer (MLRO)

      • FC-4.1 FC-4.1 Appointment of MLRO

        • FC-4.1.1

          Licensees must appoint a Money Laundering reporting officer ("MLRO"). The MLRO must be approved by the CBB prior to his appointment. The position of MLRO is a controlled function and the MLRO is an approved person.

          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.2

          For details of CBB's requirements regarding controlled functions and approved persons, see Section AU-1.2. Amongst other things, approved persons require CBB approval before being appointed, which is granted only if they are assessed as 'fit and proper' for the function in question. A completed Form 3 must accompany any request for CBB approval.

          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.3

          The position of MLRO must not be combined with functions that create potential conflicts of interest, such as an internal auditor or business line head. The position of MLRO may not be outsourced.

          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.4

          Subject to Paragraph FC-4.1.2, however, the position of MLRO may otherwise be combined with other functions in the licensee, such as that of Compliance Officer, in cases where the volume and geographical spread of the business is limited and, therefore, the demands of the function are not likely to require a full time resource.

          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.4A

          For purposes of Paragraphs FC-4.1.3 and FC-4.1.4 above, licensees must clearly state in the Application for Approved Person Status — Form 3 — when combining the MLRO or DMLRO position with any other position within the licensee.

          Added: October 2017

        • FC-4.1.5

          Licensees must appoint a deputy MLRO to act for the MLRO in his absence. The deputy MLRO must be resident in Bahrain unless otherwise agreed with the CBB.

          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.6

          Licensees should note that although the MLRO may delegate some of his functions, either within the licensee or even possibly (in the case of larger groups) to individuals performing similar functions for other group entities, the responsibility for compliance with the requirements of this Module remains with the licensee and the designated MLRO. The deputy MLRO should be able to support the MLRO discharge his responsibilities and to deputise for him in his absence.

          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.7

          So that he can carry out his functions effectively, licensees must ensure that their MLRO:

          (a) Is a member of senior management of the licensee;
          (b) Has a sufficient level of seniority within the licensee, has the authority to act without interference from business line management and has direct access to the board and senior management (where necessary);
          (c) Has sufficient resources, including sufficient time and (if necessary) support staff, and has designated a replacement to carry out the function should the MLRO be unable to perform his duties;
          (d) Has unrestricted access to all transactional information relating to any financial services provided by the licensee to a customer, or any transactions conducted by the licensee on behalf of that customer;
          (e) Is provided with timely information needed to identify, analyse and effectively monitor customer accounts;
          (f) Has access to all customer due diligence information obtained by the licensee; and
          (g) Is resident in Bahrain.
          Amended: April 2012
          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.8

          In addition, licensees must ensure that their MLRO is able to:

          (a) Monitor the day-to-day operation of its policies and procedures relevant to this Module; and
          (b) Respond promptly to any reasonable request for information made by the Financial Intelligence Directorate or the CBB.
          Amended: October 2019
          October 2010

        • FC-4.1.9

          If the position of MLRO falls vacant, the licensee must appoint a permanent replacement (after obtaining CBB approval), within 120 calendar days of the vacancy occurring. Pending the appointment of a permanent replacement, the licensee must make immediate interim arrangements (including the appointment of an acting MLRO) to ensure continuity in the MLRO function's performance. These interim arrangements must be approved by the CBB.

          October 2010

      • FC-4.2 FC-4.2 Responsibilities of the MLRO

        • FC-4.2.1

          The MLRO is responsible for:

          (a) Establishing and maintaining the licensee's AML/CFT policies and procedures;
          (b) Ensuring that the licensee complies with the AML Law and any other applicable AML/CFT legislation and this Module;
          (c) Ensuring day-to-day compliance with the licensee's own internal AML/CFT policies and procedures;
          (d) Acting as the licensee's main point of contact in respect of handling internal suspicious transactions reports from the licensee's staff (refer to Section FC-5.1) and as the main contact for the Financial Intelligence Directorate, the CBB and other concerned bodies regarding AML/CFT;
          (e) Making external suspicious transactions reports to the Financial Intelligence Directorate and the Compliance Directorate (refer to Section FC-5.2);
          (f) Taking reasonable steps to establish and maintain adequate arrangements for staff awareness and training on AML/CFT matters (whether internal or external), as per Chapter FC-6;
          (g) Producing annual reports on the effectiveness of the licensee's AML / CFT controls, for consideration by senior management, as per Paragraph FC-4.3.3;
          (h) On-going monitoring of what may, in his opinion, constitute high-risk customer accounts; and
          (i) Maintaining all necessary CDD, transactions, STR and staff training records for the required periods (refer to Section FC-7.1).
          Amended: October 2019
          October 2010

      • FC-4.3 FC-4.3 Compliance Monitoring

        • Annual Compliance Review

          • FC-4.3.1

            A licensee must review the effectiveness of its AML/CFT procedures, systems and controls at least once each calendar year. The review must cover the licensee and its branches and subsidiaries both inside and outside the Kingdom of Bahrain. The scope of the review must include:

            (a) A report, containing the number of internal reports made in accordance with Section FC-5.1, a breakdown of all the results of those internal reports and their outcomes for each segment of the licensee's business, and an analysis of whether controls or training need to be enhanced;
            (b) A report, indicating the number of external reports made in accordance with Section FC-5.2 and, where a licensee has made an internal report but not made an external report, noting why no external report was made;
            (c) A sample test of compliance with this Module's customer due diligence requirements; and
            (d) A report as to the quality of the licensee's anti-money laundering procedures, systems and controls, and compliance with the AML Law and this Module.
            October 2010

          • FC-4.3.2

            The reports listed under Subparagraphs FC-4.3.1 (a) and (b) must be made by the MLRO. The sample testing required under Subparagraph FC-4.3.1 (c) must be undertaken either by the licensee's internal auditor, its external auditor or a consultancy firm approved by the CBB. The report required under Subparagraph FC-4.3.1 (d) must be made by the licensee's external auditor or a consultancy firm approved by the CBB.

            Amended: April 2012
            October 2010

          • FC-4.3.2A

            In order for a consultancy firm to be approved by the CBB for the purposes of Paragraph FC-4.3.2, such firm should provide the CBB's Compliance Directorate with:

            (a) A sample AML/CFT report prepared for a financial institution;
            (b) A list of other AML/CFT related work undertaken by the firm;
            (c) A list of other audit/review assignments undertaken, specifying the nature of the work done, date and name of the licensee; and
            (d) An outline of any assignment conducted for or in cooperation with an international audit firm.
            Added: April 2012

          • FC-4.3.2B

            The firm should indicate which personnel (by name) will work on the report (including, where appropriate, which individual will be the team leader) and demonstrate that all such persons have appropriate qualifications in one of the following areas:

            (a) Audit;
            (b) Accounting;
            (c) Law; or
            (d) Banking/Finance.
            Added: April 2012

          • FC-4.3.2C

            At least two persons working on the report (one of whom would normally expected to be the team leader) should have:

            (a) A minimum of 5 years professional experience dealing with AML/CFT issues; and
            (b) Formal AML/CFT training.
            Added: April 2012

          • FC-4.3.2D

            Submission of a curriculum vitae for all personnel to be engaged on the report is encouraged for the purposes of evidencing the above requirements.

            Added: April 2012

          • FC-4.3.2E

            Upon receipt of the above required information, the CBB Compliance Directorate will assess the firm and communicate to it whether it meets the criteria required to be approved by the CBB for this purpose. The CBB may also request any other information it considers necessary in order to conduct the assessment.

            Added: April 2012

          • FC-4.3.3

            The reports listed under Paragraph FC-4.3.1 must be submitted to the licensee's Board, for it to review and commission any required remedial measures, and copied to the licensee's senior management.

            October 2010

          • FC-4.3.4

            The purpose of the annual compliance review is to assist a licensee's Board and senior management to assess, amongst other things, whether internal and external reports are being made (as required under Chapter FC-5), and whether the overall number of such reports (which may otherwise appear satisfactory) does not conceal inadequate reporting in a particular segment of the licensee's business (or, where relevant, in particular branches or subsidiaries). Licensees should use their judgement as to how the reports listed under Subparagraphs FC-4.3.1 (a) and (b) should be broken down in order to achieve this aim (e.g. by branches, departments, product lines, etc).

            October 2010

          • FC-4.3.5

            Licensees must instruct their appointed firm to produce the report referred to in Subparagraph FC-4.3.1 (d). The report must be submitted to the CBB by the 30th of June of the following year. The findings of this review must be received and acted upon by the licensee.

            Amended: January 2020
            Amended: April 2012
            Added: October 2010

          • FC-4.3.6

            The appointed firm may rely upon work performed by the licensee's internal audit function, as part of their procedures for producing the statement referred to in Paragraph FC-4.3.5.

            Amended: April 2012
            October 2010

          • FC-4.3.7

            The reports referred to in Subparagraphs (a), (b) and (c) FC-4.3.1 must be submitted to the Director, Compliance Directorate of the CBB by the 30th of April of the following year.

            Amended: January 2020
            Added: October 2010

    • FC-5 FC-5 Suspicious Transaction Reporting

      • FC-5.1 FC-5.1 Internal Reporting

        • FC-5.1.1

          Licensees must implement procedures to ensure that staff who handle customer business (or are managerially responsible for such staff) make a report promptly to the MLRO if they know or suspect that a customer (or a person on whose behalf a customer may be acting) is engaged in money laundering or terrorism financing, or if the transaction or the customer's conduct otherwise appears unusual or suspicious. These procedures must include arrangements for disciplining any member of staff who fails, without reasonable excuse, to make such a report.

          October 2010

        • FC-5.1.2

          Where licensees' internal processes provide for staff to consult with their line managers before sending a report to the MLRO, such processes must not be used to prevent reports reaching the MLRO, where staff have stated that they have knowledge or suspicion that a transaction may involve money laundering or terrorist financing.

          October 2010

      • FC-5.2 FC-5.2 External Reporting

        • FC-5.2.1

          Licensees must take reasonable steps to ensure that all reports made under Section FC-5.1 are considered by the MLRO (or his duly authorised delegate). Having considered the report and any other relevant information the MLRO (or his duly authorised delegate), if he still suspects that a person has been engaged in money laundering or terrorism financing, or the activity concerned is otherwise still regarded as suspicious, must report the fact promptly to the relevant authorities. Where no report is made, the MLRO must document the reasons why.

          October 2010

        • FC-5.2.2

          To take reasonable steps, as required under Paragraph FC-5.2.1, licensees must:

          (a) Require the MLRO to consider reports made under Section FC-5.1.1 in the light of all relevant information accessible to or reasonably obtainable by the MLRO;
          (b) Permit the MLRO to have access to any information, including know your customer information, in the licensee's possession which could be relevant; and
          (c) Ensure that where the MLRO, or his duly authorised delegate, suspects that a person has been engaged in money laundering or terrorist financing, a report is made by the MLRO which is not subject to the consent or approval of any other person.
          October 2010

        • FC-5.2.3

          Reports to the relevant authorities made under Paragraph FC-5.2.1 must be sent to the Financial Intelligence Directorate at the Ministry of Interior, and CBB's Compliance Directorate using the Suspicious Transaction Reporting Online System (Online STR system). STRs in paper format will not be accepted.

          Amended: October 2019
          Amended: July 2016
          Amended: October 2014
          October 2010

        • FC-5.2.4

          Licensees must report all suspicious transactions or attempted transactions. This reporting requirement applies regardless of whether the transaction involves tax matters.

          October 2010

        • FC-5.2.5

          Licensees must retain all relevant details of STRs submitted to the relevant authorities, for at least five years.

          Amended: October 2014
          October 2010

        • FC-5.2.6

          In accordance with the AML Law, licensees, their directors, officers and employees:

          (a) Must not warn or inform ("tipping off") their customers, the beneficial owner or other subjects of the STR when information relating to them is being reported to the relevant authorities; and
          (b) In cases where licensees form a suspicion that transactions relate to money laundering or terrorist financing, they must take into account the risk of tipping-off when performing the CDD process. If the licensee reasonably believes that performing the CDD process will tip-off the customer or potential customer, it may choose not to pursue that process, and must file an STR.
          Amended: January 2018
          October 2010

      • FC-5.3 FC-5.3 Contacting the Relevant Authorities

        • FC-5.3.1

          Reports made by the MLRO or his duly authorised delegate under Section FC-5.2 must be sent electronically using the Suspicious Transaction Reporting Online System (Online STR system).

          Amended: October 2014
          October 2010

        • FC-5.3.2

          The relevant authorities are:
          Financial Intelligence Directorate (FID)
          Ministry of Interior
          P.O. Box 26698
          Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
          Telephone: + 973 17 749397
          Fax: + 973 17 715502
          E-mail: bahrainfid@moipolice.bh

          Director of Compliance Directorate
          Central Bank of Bahrain
          P.O. Box 27
          Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
          Telephone: 17 547107
          Fax: 17 535673
          E-mail: Compliance@cbb.gov.bh

          Amended: October 2019
          Added: October 2014

    • FC-6 FC-6 Staff Training and Recruitment

      • FC-6.1 FC-6.1 General Requirements

        • FC-6.1.1

          A licensee must take reasonable steps to provide periodic training and information to ensure that staff who handle customer transactions, or are managerially responsible for such transactions, are made aware of:

          (a) Their responsibilities under the AML Law, this Module, and any other relevant AML/CFT laws and regulations;
          (b) The identity and responsibilities of the MLRO and his deputy;
          (c) The potential consequences, both individual and corporate, of any breach of the AML Law, this Module and any other relevant AML/CFT laws or regulations;
          (d) The licensee's current AML/CFT policies and procedures;
          (e) Money laundering and terrorist financing typologies and trends;
          (f) The type of customer activity or transaction that may justify an internal report in accordance with Section FC-5.1;
          (g) The licensee's procedures for making internal report in accordance with Section FC-5.1; and
          (h) Customer due diligence measures with respect to establishing business relations with customers.
          October 2010

        • FC-6.1.2

          The information referred to in Paragraph FC-6.1.1 must be brought to the attention of relevant new employees of licensees, and must remain available for reference by staff during their period of employment.

          October 2010

        • FC-6.1.3

          Relevant new employees must be given AML/CFT training within three months of joining a licensee.

          October 2010

        • FC-6.1.4

          Licensees must ensure that their AML/CFT training for relevant staff remains up-to-date, and is appropriate given the licensee's activities and customer base.

          October 2010

        • FC-6.1.5

          The CBB would normally expect AML/CFT training to be provided to relevant staff at least once a year.

          October 2010

        • FC-6.1.6

          Licensees must develop adequate screening procedures to ensure high standards when hiring employees. These procedures must include controls to prevent criminals or their associates from being employed by licensees.

          October 2010

        • FC-6.1.6A

          For purposes of Paragraph FC-6.1.6, licensees must obtain a good conduct certificate from the Ministry of Interior prior to hiring any Bahraini employee.

          Added: January 2021

    • FC-7 FC-7 Record Keeping

      • FC-7.1 FC-7.1 General Requirements

        • CDD and Transaction Records

          • FC-7.1.1

            Licensees must comply with the record keeping requirements contained in the AML Law and in the CBB Law. Licensees must therefore retain adequate records (including accounting and identification records), for the following minimum periods:

            (a) For customers, in relation to evidence of identity and business relationship records (such as application forms and business correspondence), for at least five years after the customer relationship has ceased; and
            (b) For transactions, in relation to documents enabling a reconstitution of the transaction concerned, for at least five years after the transaction was completed.
            October 2010

        • Compliance Records

          • FC-7.1.2

            Licensees must retain copies of the reports produced for their annual compliance review, as specified in Paragraph FC-4.3.1, for at least five years. Licensees must also maintain for 5 years reports made to, or by, the MLRO made in accordance with Sections FC-5.1 and 5.2, and records showing how these reports were dealt with and what action, if any, was taken as a consequence of those reports.

            October 2010

        • Training Records

          • FC-7.1.3

            Licensees must maintain for at least five years, records showing the dates when AML/CFT training was given, the nature of the training, and the names of the staff that received the training.

            October 2010

        • Access

          • FC-7.1.4

            All records required to be kept under this Section must be made available available (in hard copy or electronic form, where the concerned law(s) allow electronic records to be kept) for prompt and swift access by the relevant authorities or other authorised persons.

            Amended: October 2014
            Amended: April 2013
            October 2010

    • FC-8 FC-8 AML & CFT Measures

      • FC-8.1 FC-8.1 Special Measures for Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories ('NCCTs')

        • FC-8.1.1

          Licensees must give special attention to any dealings they may have with entities or persons domiciled in countries or territories which are:

          (a) Identified by the FATF as being "non-cooperative"; or
          (b) Notified to licensees from time to time by the CBB.
          October 2010

        • FC-8.1.2

          Whenever transactions with such parties have no apparent economic or visible lawful purpose, their background and purpose must be reexamined and the findings documented. If suspicions remain about the transaction, these must be reported to the relevant authorities in accordance with Section FC-5.2.

          October 2010

        • FC-8.1.3

          Licensees must apply enhanced due diligence measures to business relationships and transactions with natural and legal persons, and financial institutions, from countries where such measures are called for by the FATF. The type of enhanced due diligence measures applied must be effective and proportionate to the risks.

          Added: January 2018

        • FC-8.1.4

          With regard to the jurisdictions identified as NCCTs or those which in the opinion of the CBB, do not have adequate AML/CFT systems, the CBB reserves the right to:

          (a) Refuse the establishment of subsidiaries or branches or representative offices of financial institutions from such jurisdictions;
          (b) Limit business relationships or financial transactions with such jurisdictions or persons in those jurisdictions;
          (c) Prohibit financial institutions from relying on third parties located in such jurisdictions to conduct elements of the CDD process;
          (d) Require financial institutions to review and amend, or if necessary terminate, correspondent relationships with financial institutions in such jurisdictions;
          (e) Require increased supervisory examination and/or external audit requirements for branches and subsidiaries of financial institutions based in such jurisdictions; or
          (f) Require increased external audit requirements for financial groups with respect to any of their branches and subsidiaries located in such jurisdictions.
          Added: January 2018

      • FC-8.2 FC-8.2 Terrorist Financing

        • FC-8.2.1AA

          Licensees must implement and comply with United Nations Security Council resolutions relating to the prevention and suppression of terrorism and terrorist financing. Licensees must freeze, without delay, the funds or other assets of, and to ensure that no funds or other assets are made available, directly or indirectly, to or for the benefit of, any person or entity either (i) designated by, or under the authority of, the United Nations Security Council under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations, including in accordance with resolution 1267(1999) and its successor resolutions as well as Resolution 2178(2014) or (ii) designated as pursuant to Resolution 1373(2001).

          Amended: October 2019
          Added: April 2017

        • FC-8.2.1

          Licensees must comply in full with the provisions of the UN Security Council Anti-terrorism Resolution No. 1373 of 2001 ('UNSCR 1373').

          October 2010

        • FC-8.2.2

          [This Paragraph was deleted in January 2018].

          Deleted: January 2018
          October 2010

        • FC-8.2.3

          A copy of UNSCR 1373 is included in Part B of Volume 5 (Specialised Licensees), under 'Supplementary Information' on the CBB Website.

          October 2010

        • FC-8.2.4

          Licensees must report to the CBB details of:

          (a) Funds or other financial assets or economic resources held with them which may be the subject of Article 1, paragraphs c) and d) of UNSCR 1373; and
          (b) All claims, whether actual or contingent, which the licensee has on persons and entities which may be the subject of Article 1, paragraphs c) and d) of UNSCR 1373.
          October 2010

        • FC-8.2.5

          For the purposes of Paragraph FC-8.2.4, 'funds or other financial resources' includes (but is not limited to) shares in any undertaking owned or controlled by the persons and entities referred to in Article 1, paragraph c) and d) of UNSCR 1373, and any associated dividends received by the licensee.

          October 2010

        • FC-8.2.6

          All reports or notifications under this Section must be made to the CBB's Compliance Directorate.

          October 2010

        • FC-8.2.7

          See Section FC-5.3 for the Compliance Directorate's contact details.

          October 2010

      • FC-8.3 FC-8.3 Designated Persons and Entities

        • FC-8.3.1

          Without prejudice to the general duty of all licensees to exercise the utmost care when dealing with persons or entities who might come under Article 1, paragraphs (c) and (d) of UNSCR 1373, licensees must not deal with any persons or entities designated by the CBB as potentially linked to terrorist activity.

          October 2010

        • FC-8.3.2

          The CBB from time to time issues to licensees lists of designated persons and entities believed linked to terrorism. Licensees are required to verify that they have no dealings with these designated persons and entities, and report back their findings to the CBB. Names designated by the CBB include persons and entities designated by the United Nations, under UN Security Council Resolution 1267 ("UNSCR 1267").

          October 2010

        • FC-8.3.3

          Licensees must report to the relevant authorities, using the procedures contained in Section FC-5.2, details of any accounts or other dealings with designated persons and entities, and comply with any subsequent directions issued by the relevant authorities.

          October 2010

    • FC-9 FC-9 Enforcement Measures

      • FC-9.1 FC-9.1 Regulatory Penalties

        • FC-9.1.1

          Without prejudice to any other penalty imposed by the CBB Law, the AML Law No. 4 or the Penal Code of the Kingdom of Bahrain, failure by a licensee to comply with this Module or any direction given hereunder shall result in the levying by the CBB, without need of a court order and at the CBB's discretion, of a fine of up to BD 20,000.

          October 2010

        • FC-9.1.2

          Module EN provides further information on the assessment of financial penalties and the criteria taken into account prior to imposing such fines (reference to Paragraph EN-5.1.4). Other enforcement measures may also be applied by the CBB in response to a failure by a licensee to comply with this Module; these other measures are also set out in Module EN.

          October 2010

        • FC-9.1.3

          The CBB will endeavor to assist licensees to interpret and apply the requirements of this Module. Licensees may seek clarification on any issue by contacting the Compliance Directorate (see Section FC-5.3 for contact details).

          October 2010

        • FC-9.1.4

          Without prejudice to the CBB's general powers under the law, the CBB may amend, clarify or issue further directions on any provision of this Module from time to time, by notice to its licensees.

          October 2010

    • FC-10 FC-10 AML / CFT Guidance and Best Practice

      • FC-10.1 FC-10.1 Guidance Provided by International Bodies

        • FATF: 40 Recommendations and 9 Special Recommendations

          • FC-10.1.1

            The Forty Recommendations (see www.fatf-gafi.org) and Nine Special Recommendations (together with their associated interpretative notes and best practices papers) issued by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), provide the basic framework for combating money laundering activities and the financing of terrorism. FATF Recommendations 4-6, 8-11, 13-15, 17 and 21-23 as well as Special Recommendations IV, V, VII and the AML/CFT Methodology are specifically relevant to the financial institutions.

            October 2010

          • FC-10.1.2

            The relevant authorities in Bahrain believe that the principles established by these Recommendations and Special Recommendations should be followed by licensees in all material respects, as representing best practice and prudence in this area.

            October 2010

        • Other Website References Relevant to AML/CFT

          • FC-10.1.3

            The following lists a selection of other websites relevant to AML/CFT:

            (a) The Middle East North Africa Financial Action Task Force: www.menafatf.org;
            (b) The Egmont Group: www.egmontgroup.org;
            (c) The United Nations: www.un.org/terrorism;
            (d) The UN Counter-Terrorism Committee: www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/1373/;
            (e) The UN list of designated individuals: www.un.org/Docs/sc/committees/1267/1267ListEng.htm ;
            (f) The Wolfsberg Group: www.wolfsberg-principles.com; and
            (g) The Association of Certified Anti-Money Laundering Specialists: www.acams.org.
            October 2010

    • FC-11 FC-11 Fraud

      • FC-11.1 FC-11.1 General Requirements

        • FC-11.1.1

          The requirements of this Chapter apply to all Specialised Licensees.

          October 2010

        • FC-11.1.2

          Licensees must ensure that they allocate appropriate resources and have in place systems and controls to deter, detect, and record instances of fraud or attempted fraud.

          October 2010

        • FC-11.1.3

          Fraud may arise from internal sources originating from changes or weaknesses to processes, products and internal systems and controls. Fraud can also arise from external sources, for instance through false invoicing or advance fee frauds.

          October 2010

        • FC-11.1.4

          Any actual or attempted fraud incident (however small) must be reported to the appropriate authorities (including the CBB) and followed up. Monitoring systems must be designed to measure fraud patterns that might reveal a series of related fraud incidents.

          October 2010

        • FC-11.1.5

          Licensees must ensure that a person, of sufficient seniority, is given overall responsibility for the prevention, detection and remedying of fraud within the organisation.

          October 2010

        • FC-11.1.6

          Licensees must ensure the effective segregation of functions and responsibilities, between different individuals and departments, such that the possibility of financial crime is reduced and that no single individual is able to initiate, process and control a transaction.

          October 2010

        • FC-11.1.7

          Licensees must provide regular training to their management and staff, to make them aware of potential fraud risks.

          October 2010